Dr. Kleinberg discovered how saliva’s chemistry helps teeth neutralize the acidity created from eating food by balancing the pH levels in the mouth. “[It’s] like if you’ve got a swimming pool,” Dr. Kleinberg said. “You have got to get the pH right. If you’ve got a neutral pH, you’ve got the ideal condition.” He developed a candy to fight cavities. The candy is fluoride-free and protects teeth in two ways. First, it raises pH levels to neutralize more acid than saliva alone. Second, it protects the minerals in tooth enamel. Arginine, an amino acid, combines with calcium in Cavistat, the candy’s main ingredient, and sticks to teeth — leaving behind a layer of protection. Kids who ate two mints twice a day for one year had 68 percent fewer cavities in their molars than children who didn’t chew the mints. Photo by emdot.